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Complex Numbers
Perform the indicated operation with complex numbers.
1) \((4+3 i)+(25 i)\)
 Answer

\(22 i\)
2) \((65 i)(10+3 i)\)
3) \((23 i)(3+6 i)\)
 Answer

\(24+3 i\)
4) \(\dfrac{2i}{2+i}\)
Solve the following equations over the complex number system.
5) \(x^{2}4 x+5=0\)
 Answer

\(\{2+i, 2i\}\)
6) \(x^{2}+2 x+10=0\)
Quadratic Functions
For the exercises 12, write the quadratic function in standard form. Then, give the vertex and axes intercepts. Finally, graph the function.
1) \(f(x)=x^{2}4 x5\)
 Answer

\(f(x)=(x2)^{2}9\) vertex \((2,9)\), intercepts \((5,0); (1,0); (0,5)\)
2) \(f(x)=2 x^{2}4 x\)
For the problems 34, find the equation of the quadratic function using the given information.
3) The vertex is \((2,3)\) and a point on the graph is \((3,6)\).
 Answer

\(f(x)=\dfrac{3}{25}(x+2)^{2}+3\)
4) The vertex is \((3,6.5)\) and a point on the graph is \((2,6)\).
Answer the following questions.
5) A rectangular plot of land is to be enclosed by fencing. One side is along a river and so needs no fence. If the total fencing available is \(600\) meters, find the dimensions of the plot to have maximum area.
 Answer

\(300\) meters by \(150\) meters, the longer side parallel to river.
6) An object projected from the ground at a \(45\) degree angle with initial velocity of \(120\) feet per second has height, \(h\), in terms of horizontal distance traveled, \(x\), given by \(h(x)=\dfrac{32}{(120)^{2}} x^{2}+x\). Find the maximum height the object attains.
Power Functions and Polynomial Functions
For the exercises 13, determine if the function is a polynomial function and, if so, give the degree and leading coefficient.
1) \(f(x)=4 x^{5}3 x^{3}+2 x1\)
 Answer

Yes, \(\text{degree} = 5\), \(\text{leading coefficient} = 4\)
2) \(f(x)=5^{x+1}x^{2}\)
3) \(f(x)=x^{2}\left(36 x+x^{2}\right)\)
 Answer

Yes, \(\text{degree} = 4\), \(\text{leading coefficient} = 1\)
For the exercises 46, determine end behavior of the polynomial function.
4) \(f(x)=2 x^{4}+3 x^{3}5 x^{2}+7\)
5) \(f(x)=4 x^{3}6 x^{2}+2\)
 Answer

As \(x \rightarrow\infty, f(x) \rightarrow\infty \), as \(x \rightarrow \infty, f(x) \rightarrow \infty\)
6) \(f(x)=2 x^{2}\left(1+3 xx^{2}\right)\)
Graphs of Polynomial Functions
For the exercises 13, find all zeros of the polynomial function, noting multiplicities.
1) \(f(x)=(x+3)^{2}(2 x1)(x+1)^{3}\)
 Answer

\(3\) with multiplicity \(2\), \(\dfrac{1}{2}\) with multiplicity \(1\), \(1\) with multiplicity \(3\)
2) \(f(x)=x^{5}+4 x^{4}+4 x^{3}\)
3) \(f(x)=x^{3}4 x^{2}+x4\)
 Answer

\(4\) with multiplicity \(1\)
For the exercises 45, based on the given graph, determine the zeros of the function and note multiplicity.
4)
5)
 Answer

\(\dfrac{1}{2}\) with multiplicity \(1\), \(3\) with multiplicity \(3\)
6) Use the Intermediate Value Theorem to show that at least one zero lies between \(2\) and \(3\) for the function \(f(x)=x^{3}5 x+1\)
Dividing Polynomials
For the exercises 12, use long division to find the quotient and remainder.
1) \(\dfrac{x^{3}2 x^{2}+4 x+4}{x2}\)
 Answer

\(x^{2}+4\) with remainder \(12\)
2) \(\dfrac{3 x^{4}4 x^{2}+4 x+8}{x+1}\)
For the exercises 36, use synthetic division to find the quotient. If the divisor is a factor, then write the factored form.
3) \(\dfrac{x^{2}2 x^{2}+5 x1}{x+3}\)
 Answer

\(x^{2}5 x+20\dfrac{61}{x+3}\)
4) \(\dfrac{x^{2}+4 x+10}{x3}\)
5) \(\dfrac{2 x^{3}+6 x^{2}11 x12}{x+4}\)
 Answer

\(2 x^{2}2x3\), so factored form is \((x+4)\left(2 x^{2}2x3\right)\)
6) \(\dfrac{3 x^{4}+3 x^{3}+2 x+2}{x+1}\)
Zeros of Polynomial Functions
For the exercises 14, use the Rational Zero Theorem to help you solve the polynomial equation.
1) \(2 x^{3}3 x^{2}18 x8=0\)
 Answer

\(\left\{2,4,\dfrac{1}{2}\right\}\)
2) \(3x^{3}+11 x^{2}+8 x4=0\)
3) \(2 x^{4}17 x^{3}+46 x^{2}43 x+12=0\)
 Answer

\(\left\{1,3,4, \dfrac{1}{2}\right\}\)
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For the exercises 56, use Descartes’ Rule of Signs to find the possible number of positive and negative solutions.
5) \(x^{3}3 x^{2}2 x+4=0\)
 Answer

\(0\) or \(2\) positive, \(1\) negative
6) \(2 x^{4}x^{3}+4 x^{2}5 x+1=0\)
Rational Functions
For the following rational functions 14, find the intercepts and the vertical and horizontal asymptotes, and then use them to sketch a graph.
1) \(f(x)=\dfrac{x+2}{x5}\)
 Answer

Intercepts \((2,0)\) and \(\left(0,\dfrac{2}{5}\right)\), Asymptotes \(x=5\) and \(y=1\)
2) \(f(x)=\dfrac{x^{2}+1}{x^{2}4}\)
3) \(f(x)=\dfrac{3 x^{2}27}{x^{2}9}\)
 Answer

Intercepts \((3,0),(3,0)\), and \(\left(0, \dfrac{27}{2}\right)\), Asymptotes \(x=1, x=2, y=3\)
4) \(f(x)=\dfrac{x+2}{x^{2}9}\)
For the exercises 56, find the slant asymptote.
5) \(f(x)=\dfrac{x^{2}1}{x+2}\)
 Answer

\(y=x2\)
6) \(f(x)=\dfrac{2 x^{3}x^{2}+4}{x^{2}+1}\)
Inverses and Radical Functions
For the exercises 16, find the inverse of the function with the domain given.
1) \(f(x)=(x2)^{2}, x \geq 2\)
 Answer

\(f^{1}(x)=\sqrt{x}+2\)
2) \(f(x)=(x+4)^{2}3, x \geq4\)
3) \(f(x)=x^{2}+6 x2, x \geq3\)
 Answer

\(f^{1}(x)=\sqrt{x+11}3\)
4) \(f(x)=2 x^{3}3\)
5) \(f(x)=\sqrt{4 x+5}3\)
 Answer

\(f^{1}(x)=\dfrac{(x+3)^{2}5}{4}, x \geq3\)
6) \(f(x)=\dfrac{x3}{2 x+1}\)
Modeling Using Variation
For the exercises 14, find the unknown value.
1) \(y\) varies directly as the square of \(x\). If when \(x=3, y=36\), find \(y\) if \(x=4\).
 Answer

\(y=64\)
2) \(y\) varies inversely as the square root of \(x\). If when \(x=25, y=2\), find \(y\) if \(x=4\).
3) \(y\) varies jointly as the cube of \(x\) and as \(z\). If when \(x=1\) and \(z=2, y=6\), find \(y\) if \(x=2\) and \(z=3\).
 Answer

\(y=72\)
4) \(y\) varies jointly as \(x\) and the square of \(z\) and inversely as the cube of \(w\). If when \(x=3, z=4\), and \(w=2, y=48\), ind \(y\) if \(x=4, z=5\), and \(w=3\).
For the exercises 56, solve the application problem.
5) The weight of an object above the surface of the earth varies inversely with the distance from the center of the earth. If a person weighs \(150\) pounds when he is on the surface of the earth (\(3,960\) miles from center), find the weight of the person if he is \(20\) miles above the surface.
 Answer

\(148.5\) pounds
6) The volume \(V\) of an ideal gas varies directly with the temperature \(T\) and inversely with the pressure\(P\). A cylinder contains oxygen at a temperature of \(310\) degrees K and a pressure of \(18\) atmospheres in a volume of \(120\) liters. Find the pressure if the volume is decreased to \(100\) liters and the temperature is increased to \(320\) degrees K.
Practice Test
Perform the indicated operation or solve the equation.
1) \((34 i)(4+2 i)\)
 Answer

\(2010 i\)
2) \(\dfrac{14 i}{3+4 i}\)
3) \(x^{2}4 x+13=0\)
 Answer

\(\{2+3 i, 23 i\}\)
4) Give the degree and leading coefficient of the following polynomial function. \[f(x)=x^{3}\left(36 x^{2}2 x^{2}\right) \nonumber \]
Determine the end behavior of the polynomial function.
5) \(f(x)=8 x^{3}3 x^{2}+2 x4\)
 Answer

As \(x \rightarrow\infty, f(x) \rightarrow\infty\), as \(x \rightarrow \infty, f(x) \rightarrow \infty\)
6) \(f(x)=2 x^{2}\left(43 x5 x^{2}\right)\)
7) Write the quadratic function in standard form. Determine the vertex and axes intercepts and graph the function. \[f(x)=x^{2}+2 x8 \nonumber \]
 Answer

\(f(x)=(x+1)^{2}9,\) vertex \((1,9),\) intercepts \((2,0); (4,0); (0,8)\)
8) Given information about the graph of a quadratic function, find its equation: Vertex \((2,0)\) and point on graph \((4,12)\)
Solve the following application problem.
9) A rectangular field is to be enclosed by fencing. In addition to the enclosing fence, another fence is to divide the field into two parts, running parallel to two sides. If \(1,200\) feet of fencing is available, find the maximum area that can be enclosed.
 Answer

\(60,000\) square feet
Find all zeros of the following polynomial functions, noting multiplicities.
10) \(f(x)=(x3)^{3}(3 x1)(x1)^{2}\)
11) \(f(x)=2 x^{6}12 x^{5}+18 x^{4}\)
 Answer

\(0\) with multiplicity \(4\), \(3\) with multiplicity \(2\)
12) Based on the graph, determine the zeros of the function and multiplicities.
13) Use long division to find the quotient: \[\dfrac{2 x^{2}+3 x4}{x+2} \nonumber \]
 Answer

\(2 x^{2}4 x+11\dfrac{26}{x+2}\)
Use synthetic division to find the quotient. If the divisor is a factor, write the factored form.
14) \(\dfrac{x^{4}+3 x^{2}4}{x2}\)
15) \(\dfrac{2 x^{3}+5 x^{2}7 x12}{x+3}\)
 Answer

\(2 x^{2}x4\). So factored form is \((x+3)\left(2 x^{2}x4\right)\)
Use the Rational Zero Theorem to help you find the zeros of the polynomial functions.
16) \(f(x)=2 x^{3}+5 x^{2}6 x9\)
17) \(f(x)=4 x^{4}+8 x^{3}+21 x^{2}+17 x+4\)
 Answer

\(\dfrac{1}{2}\) (has multiplicity \(2\)), \(\dfrac{1+i \sqrt{15}}{2}\)
18) \(f(x)=4 x^{4}+16 x^{3}+13 x^{2}15 x18\)
19) \(f(x)=x^{5}+6 x^{4}+13 x^{3}+14 x^{2}+12 x+8\)
 Answer

\(2\) (has multiplicity \(3\)), \(\pm i\)
Given the following information about a polynomial function, find the function.
20) It has a double zero at \(x=3\) and zeroes at \(x=1\) and \(x=2\). Its \(y\) intercept is \((0,12)\).
21) It has a zero of multiplicity \(3\) at \(x=\dfrac{1}{2}\) and another zero at \(x=3\). It contains the point \((1,8)\).
 Answer

\(f(x)=2(2 x1)^{3}(x+3)\)
22) Use Descartes’ Rule of Signs to determine the possible number of positive and negative solutions. \[8 x^{3}21 x^{2}+6=0 \nonumber \]
For the following rational functions, find the intercepts and horizontal and vertical asymptotes, and sketch a graph.
23) \(f(x)=\dfrac{x+4}{x^{2}2 x3}\)
 Answer

Intercepts \((4,0)\), \(\left(0,\dfrac{4}{3}\right)\), Asymptotes \(x=3, x=1, y=0\)
24) \(f(x)=\dfrac{x^{2}+2 x3}{x^{2}4}\)
25) Find the slant asymptote of the rational function. \[f(x)=\dfrac{x^{2}+3 x3}{x1} \nonumber \]
 Answer

\(y=x+4\)
Find the inverse of the function.
26) \(f(x)=\sqrt{x2}+4\)
27) \(f(x)=3 x^{3}4\)
 Answer

\(f^{1}(x)=\sqrt[3]{\dfrac{x+4}{3}}\)
28) \(f(x)=\dfrac{2 x+3}{3 x1}\)
Find the unknown value.
29) \(y\) varies inversely as the square of \(x\) and when \(x=3, y=2\). Find \(y\) if \(x=1\).
 Answer

\(y=18\)
30) \(y\) varies jointly with \(x\) and the cube root of \(z\). If when \(x=27, y=12\), find \(y\) if \(x=5\) and \(z=8\).
Solve the following application problem.
31) The distance a body falls varies directly as the square of the time it falls. If an object falls \(64\) feet in \(2\) seconds, how long will it take to fall \(256\) feet?
 Answer

\(4\) seconds
FAQs
What is the relationship between polynomial functions and rational functions? ›
A rational function is a function that can be written as the quotient of two polynomials. Any rational function r(x) = , where q(x) is not the zero polynomial.
What is polynomial function rational function? ›A rational function is a function that can be written as the ratio of two polynomials, P(x) and Q(x). To get a feel for these functions, we will look at a graph. Notice that the graph is undefined at x = 3, since that would cause us to divide by 0.
What is the difference between rational function and polynomial function? ›Just as rational numbers are defined in terms of quotients of integers, rational functions are defined in terms of quotients of polynomials. f(x) = n(x) d(x) , d(x) = 0 where n(x) and n(x) are polynomials. are all rational functions. Recall that a polynomial function is always continuous and ”smooth”.
What is an example of a polynomial and a rational function? ›h(x) = x + 3 x2 + 5x + 4 . This is an example of a rational polynomial function to which we cannot apply polynomial long division, because the leading term of the numerator, which is x, has a smaller exponent than the leading term of the denominator, which is x2.
What are the 5 polynomial functions? ›Degree of the polynomial  Name of the function 

2  Quadratic function 
3  Cubic function 
4  Quartic function 
5  Quintic Function 
The four most common types of polynomials that are used in precalculus and algebra are zero polynomial function, linear polynomial function, quadratic polynomial function, and cubic polynomial function.
What is the simplest polynomial and rational function you can imagine? ›The simplest polynomial function one can imagine is f(x)=x^0 which is equal to 1. The simplest rational function one can imagine is f(x)=1/x. The polynomials and rational functions are utilized in everyday life in various fields including science, economics, technology, and so on.
Why do we study rational function? ›Rational equations can be used to solve a variety of problems that involve rates, times and work. Using rational expressions and equations can help us answer questions about how to combine workers or machines to complete a job on schedule.
What are 5 examples of rational equation? › 2x2+4x−7x2−3x+8.
 2x2+4x−7x2−3x+8=0.
 x2−5x+6x2+3x+2=0.
A polynomial function is a function that involves only nonnegative integer powers or only positive integer exponents of a variable in an equation like the quadratic equation, cubic equation, etc. For example, 2x+5 is a polynomial that has exponent equal to 1.
What is the real life application of polynomial functions? ›
As we inhale our lungs expand in as a polynomial function and when we exhale our lungs contract in a parabolic way. The process of inhale and exhale can be well expresses by the curve as shown below.
How are rational functions used in real life? ›Rational equations can be used to solve a variety of problems that involve rates, times and work. Using rational expressions and equations can help you answer questions about how to combine workers or machines to complete a job on schedule.
Why are polynomials important? ›Polynomials are an important part of the "language" of mathematics and algebra. They are used in nearly every field of mathematics to express numbers as a result of mathematical operations. Polynomials are also "building blocks" in other types of mathematical expressions, such as rational expressions.
What grade is rational functions? ›Grade 12 Math Advanced Functions Unit 7  Rational Functions (Ontario MHF4U) — jensenmath.
What is 1 example of rational function? ›A rational function is one that can be written as a polynomial divided by a polynomial. Since polynomials are defined everywhere, the domain of a rational function is the set of all numbers except the zeros of the denominator. Example 1. f(x) = x / (x  3).
What is an example of rational rational function? ›Any function of one variable, x, is called a rational function if, it can be represented as f(x) = p(x)/q(x), where p(x) and q(x) are polynomials such that q(x) ≠ 0. For example, f(x) = (x^{2} + x  2) / (2x^{2}  2x  3) is a rational function and here, 2x^{2}  2x  3 ≠ 0.
What makes a polynomial? ›A polynomial is defined as an expression which is composed of variables, constants and exponents, that are combined using mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division (No division operation by a variable).
What are the key concepts of a rational function? ›A rational function is a function that is a fraction and has the property that both its numerator and denominator are polynomials. In other words, R(x) is a rational function if R(x) = p(x) / q(x) where p(x) and q(x) are both polynomials.
What is a polynomial function for dummies? ›In Algebra II, a polynomial function is one in which the coefficients are all real numbers, and the exponents on the variables are all whole numbers. A polynomial whose greatest power is 2 is called a quadratic polynomial; if the highest power is 3, then it's called a cubic polynomial.
How do you solve a polynomial function? ›To solve a polynomial equation, first write it in standard form. Once it is equal to zero, factor it and then set each variable factor equal to zero. The solutions to the resulting equations are the solutions to the original. Not all polynomial equations can be solved by factoring.
What is a real life example of a polynomial problem? ›
For example, roller coaster designers may use polynomials to describe the curves in their rides. Combinations of polynomial functions are sometimes used in economics to do cost analyses, for example. Engineers use polynomials to graph the curves of roller coasters and bridges.
What is a polynomial in math? ›In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of variables (also called indeterminates) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and nonnegative integer exponentiation of variables. An example of a polynomial of a single indeterminate x is x2 − 4x + 7.
Can a rational function not be a polynomial? ›Consider a polynomial p(x). This can be written as a rational expression as p(x)/1. Q. All polynomials are rational expressions, but all rational expressions need not be a polynomial.
What is an example of a function that is not a polynomial? ›Polynomials are algebraic expressions in which the variables have only nonnegative integer powers. For example, 5x^{2}  x + 1 is a polynomial. The algebraic expression 3x^{3} + 4x + 5/x + 6x^{3}^{/}^{2} is not a polynomial, since one of the powers of 'x' is a fraction and the other is negative.
What are two important features of any rational function? ›Two important features of any rational function r ( x ) = p ( x ) q ( x ) are any zeros and vertical asymptotes the function may have. These aspects of a rational function are closely connected to where the numerator and denominator, respectively, are zero.
What is a zero in a rational function? ›Rational functions have zeros (roots), points where the graph crosses the xaxis, or f(x) = 0, just like polynomial functions. The zeros of a rational function are the zeros of the numerator; they don't depend on the denominator, unless there's a hole.
What is rational equation in real life? ›Rational equations can be useful for representing reallife situations and for finding answers to real problems. In particular, they are quite good for describing distancespeedtime relationships and for modeling work problems that involve more than one person.
What are the first 2 steps for solving a rational equation? ›The steps to solve a rational equation are: Find the common denominator. Multiply everything by the common denominator. Simplify.
What are 3 real life examples for rational numbers? ›Distance to be run, time taken to run the distance, number of participants in a race, coming first or second or third, number of heart beats you take every minute etc., are all rational numbers.
What is the difference between a polynomial and an equation? ›A polynomial is an expression that is made up of one or more variables, coefficients, and nonnegative integer exponents of variables. An equation is a mathematical statement with an 'equal to' symbol between two algebraic expressions that have equal values.
What is 1 example of polynomial equation? ›
Example of a polynomial equation is: 2x^{2} + 3x + 1 = 0, where 2x^{2} + 3x + 1 is basically a polynomial expression which has been set equal to zero, to form a polynomial equation.
Are all polynomial functions continuous? ›Therefore, every polynomial function is continuous in their domain.
How are polynomials used in engineering? ›Architects use polynomials to design the shape of a bridge like this and to draw the blueprints for it. Engineers use polynomials to calculate the stress on the bridge's supports to ensure they are strong enough for the intended load.
What is one application of polynomial function? ›Applications of Polynomials
Polynomials are used in physics, chemistry, and electronics. It is used in construction. Used in Roller coaster design to describe the curves. Mathematical models are used in meteorology, to represent weather patterns.
René Descartes, in La géometrie, 1637, introduced the concept of the graph of a polynomial equation.
How do you relate polynomials in real life situations? ›Polynomials are used in engineering, computer and math based jobs, in management, business and even in farming. In all careers requiring knowledge of polynomials, variables and constants are used to create expressions defining quantities which are known and unknown.
Why are polynomials difficult? ›It is hard to factorize a polynomial especially when the degree is higher, as there are multiple steps to follow like applying factor theorem and then dividing it with the factor to get the quotient, we again need to factorize the quotient.
Why do you need to study polynomial equations? ›Polynomials can be used to plot complex curves that decide the path of missile trajectories or a roller coaster or model a complex situation in the physics experiment. Polynomial modelling functions can be even be used to solve questions in chemistry and biology.
What is the relationship between polynomials and functions? ›A polynomial is a function of the form f(x) = anxn + an−1xn−1 + ... + a2x2 + a1x + a0 . The degree of a polynomial is the highest power of x in its expression. Constant (nonzero) polynomials, linear polynomials, quadratics, cubics and quartics are polynomials of degree 0, 1, 2 , 3 and 4 respectively.
What is the relationship between polynomials and equations? ›A polynomial is an expression that is made up of one or more variables, coefficients, and nonnegative integer exponents of variables. An equation is a mathematical statement with an 'equal to' symbol between two algebraic expressions that have equal values.
Does rational function refers to a function that is the ratio of two polynomials? ›
Definitions: A rational expression is the ratio of two polynomials. If f is a rational expression then f can be written in the form p/q where p and q are polynomials.
What is a real life example of a polynomial function? ›Polynomials are everywhere. It is found in a roller coaster of an amusement park, the slope of a hill, the curve of a bridge or the continuity of a mountain range. They play a key role in the study of algebra, in analysis and on the whole many mathematical problems involving them.
What is the difference between a polynomial equation and a function? ›A polynomial equation is an expression consisting of variables, coefficients and exponents. A polynomial function is one which has a single independent variable.
How do you explain polynomials? ›A polynomial is defined as an expression which is composed of variables, constants and exponents, that are combined using mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division (No division operation by a variable).
What is the difference between polynomials and functions? ›A polynomial is defined to be the sum of monomials, which are defined to be products of variables with positive integral indices, and some constant terms. Since , that means it cannot be a polynomial. A function is only an action to map something onto another thing.
Is a rational function the answer of two polynomial functions? ›A rational function is any function which can be written as the ratio of two polynomial functions, where the polynomial in the denominator is not equal to zero. is not zero. values at which the denominator equals zero are called singularities and are not in the domain of the function.
Is rational function both numerator and denominator are polynomials? ›In mathematics, a rational function is any function that can be defined by a rational fraction, which is an algebraic fraction such that both the numerator and the denominator are polynomials. The coefficients of the polynomials need not be rational numbers; they may be taken in any field K.
Is a rational expression the difference of two polynomials? ›A rational expression is simply a quotient of two polynomials. Or in other words, it is a fraction whose numerator and denominator are polynomials.